VERBS

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VERBS






Verbs have traditionally been defined as words
that show
action or state of being.


           


            


Verbs can also sometimes be recognized by their
position in a sentence.


In the following two sentence frames, only a verb
can be put into the empty slot.


           
NOUN
__________                           
THERE ________ NOUN


                           
(verb)                                                       
(verb) 


         


Often, prefixes and suffixes (affixes)  will signify that a word is a
verb.  For example, the
suffixes
-ify, -ize,
-ate,
or -en usually signify that a word is
a verb, as in typify, characterize, irrigate, and sweeten. 
Prefixes such as be-, de-, or
en
–  may signify that a word is a
verb, as in bestow, dethrone, and encourage.  


These affixes, often inconsistent from verb to
verb, are called derivational affixes. Added to a word, they
either change the word’s part of speech

     Example: 


      

 


or change the word’s meaning

     Example: 


 


The base form of a verb is derived from
the verb’s infinitive:  to  +  verb


               


          


Four suffixes consistently added to a verb’s
base create all forms of a verb used in all tenses:

1. -s         
creates 3rd person
singular / present tense  (He talks.)

2. -ing      
creates the present participle / used with be  (He
is talking.)

3. -ed       
creates the simple past  (He talked.)

4.
-en        creates the past
participle / used with have  (He has talked.)



Note:

The -en verb ending used with a form of
to have
as an auxiliary is generally written -ed, as in has
talked
.



      

Unlike the derivational
affixes, these inflectional suffixes are consistently used with
all verbs, even though their form may look different from verb to verb.


Because
many verbs in English are irregular;
as result, their ed and/or –en  endings
may not follow any obvious pattern.


 

















Examples:

(to write)

Smith writes short stories at home. (-s
ending)

Smith is writing short stories at home. (-ing
ending)

Smith wrote short stories at home.
(-ed ending)

Smith has written short stories at
home. (-en ending)

*

(to buy)

Jones buys a newspaper each day. 
(-s ending)

Jones is buying a newspaper today. 
(-ing ending)

Jones bought a newspaper yesterday.
(-ed ending)

Jones has bought newspapers every
day.  (-en ending)

*

(to go)

Students go to the library often. (-s
ending)

Students are going to the library often. (-ing
ending)

Students went to the library often. (-ed
ending)

Students have gone to the library
often. (-en ending)

    


      


The majority of verbs are regular and
consistently use -ed and -en to form their simple
past tense and past participles. (e.g. talked, has talked)


    


Many verbs are irregular, however, and
follow no consistent pattern in creating their -ed and/or
-en
forms.  A list of
the major irregular verbs is shown below.


 









































































Present

Past (-ed form)

Past Participle (-en form)

arise

arose

arisen

ask

asked 

asked

attack

attacked

attacked

awaken

awakened OR awoke

awakened

bear

bore

borne/born

begin

began

begun

blow

blew

blown

break

broke

broken

bring

brought

brought

burst

burst

burst

choose

chose

chosen

cling

clung

clung

come

came

come

dive

dived OR dove

dived

do

did

done

drag

dragged

dragged

draw

drew

drawn

drink

drank

drunk

drive

drove

driven

drown

drowned

drowned

eat 

ate

eaten

fall

fell

fallen

fly

flew

flown

forgive

forgave

forgiven

freeze

froze

frozen

get

got

got OR gotten

give

gave

given

go 

went

gone

grow

grew

grown

hang (things)

hung

hung

hang (people)

hanged

hanged

happen

happened

happened

know

knew

known

lay

laid

laid

lead

led

led

lie

lay

lain

loosen

loosened

loosened

lose

lost

lost

pay

paid

paid

ride

rode

ridden

ring

rang

rung

rise

rose

risen

run

ran

run

see

saw

seen

set

set

set

shake

shook

shaken

shrink

shrank OR shrunk

shrunk OR shrunken

sing

sang

sung

sink

sank OR sunk

sunk

sit

sat

sat

speak

spoke

spoken

spin

spun

spun

spit

spat

spat

spring

sprang OR sprung

sprung

steal

stole

stolen

sting

stung

stung

stink

stank OR stunk

stunk

strive

strove

striven 

study

studied

studied

swear

swore

sworn

swim

swam

swum

swing

swung

swung

take

took

taken

tear

tore

torn

throw

threw

thrown

wake

woke OR waked

woken OR waked

wear

wore

worn

weave

wove

woven

wring

wrung

wrung

write

wrote

written

    


A verb phrase is defined as the main verb
together with all its auxiliaries (helping verbs).


Auxiliary verbs always precede the main
verb.


There are two types of auxiliary verbs:


1. Inflected auxiliary verbs: 


2. Modal auxiliaries (considered more fully under
(auxiliary verbs)







present

past no tense

will

would

must

shall

should

 

can

could

 
may  
might
 

    


Examples of verb phrases:






He has taken the
test.

(auxiliary has 
+  main verb 
take.)

He is taking
the test.

(auxiliary is 
+  main verb 
take)

He did take
the test.

(auxiliary do 
+  main verb take)

He has been
taking
the test.

(auxiliaries has
been + main verb take)

 


Verbs may be divided into three types:



A.    
Action verbs -
show an action — either physical or mental

               



B.   Verbs of being (forms of be
is, are, was, were,
has/have/had been, will be
) – show a state of
existence: 

            


C.  **Linking verbs -
link a subject with its
complement 


           
(A subjective complement
“completes” /
“equals” the subject.)


           
Linking verbs:  appear, taste, smell, feel, look, sound, grow,
seem, remain, become

    

       
NOTE:  Most
linking verbs can also be used as action verbs.


    

           

 


Action
verbs may be either transitive or intransitive.

A.  A
transitive verb is one that is
followed by a direct object.

  Example: 

 


        


B.  An intransitive verb is one that is NOT followed by a direct object.

   Example: 

  

              

Caution:  An intransitive verb may be
followed by adjectives,
adverbs, and/or prepositional phrases. 
As long as the verb is not followed by a noun or pronoun functioning as the
direct object, the verb is intransitive.

  
Example: 
 

   

          

 

NOTE:  Some action verbs may be
either transitive or intransitive.

  Example:  (left

        


       

          Another example (read):                   

              

             


         


 



Verbs have three moods: 
indicative, imperative, and subjunctive.


A. The indicative mood states a fact, asks
a question, or exclaims.


          


 


B. The imperative mood gives a command. 
The subject is always “you” understood.

    
    


 


C. The subjunctive mood occurs in two
instances:



1. The sentence indicates a situation contrary to
fact.

         






2. The sentence

  • following verbs such as desire, demand,
    request, suggest

           


 




View more information: http://webapps.towson.edu/ows/verbs.htm

See more articles in category: Grammar
READ:  Admissions & Aid | Towson University

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