PRONOUNS

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Pronouns are words that substitute for nouns.

Every pronoun must have a clear
antecedent
(the word for which the pronoun stands).

KINDS OF PRONOUNS

                         

A.  
Personal
Pronouns
:

 

             

             






SINGULAR

PLURAL


subjective

objective

possessive

subjective

objective

possessive

1st person

I

me

my,
mine

we

us

our,
ours

2nd person

you

you

your,
yours

you

you

your,
yours

3rd person

he

she

it

him

her

it

his

her, 
hers

its

they

 

them

their,
theirs

                 

            







Personal pronouns have the following
characteristics:

           

1.  three persons (points of view)

       1st person
– the one(s) speaking  (I  me my  mine  we  us
our ours


       2nd person – the one(s) spoken to  (you
your yours
)

       3rd person – the one(s) spoken about 
(he  him  his  she her hers  it  its  they 
their  theirs

         
Examples

       
 

2.  three genders

       feminine  (she 
her  hers
)

       masculine (he  him  his)

       neuter  (it its  they them
their theirs

         
Examples

         


 

3.  two numbers

       singular (I  me 
my  mine  you  your  yours  he  him  his 
she  her  hers it its
)

       plural  (we  us  our 
ours  you  your yours  they  them  their 
theirs

         
Examples

         


 


4. 
three cases


      subjective
(I  you  he  she  it  we  they)

      possessive  (my  mine  your 
yours  his  her  hers  our  ours  their 
theirs
)

      objective   (me  you  him 
her  it  us  them
)


          
Examples
 – subjective case

 

          
Examples – possessive case


             

 

          
Examples – objective case

      

 

   NOTE:  Because of pronoun case, the pronoun’s form changes with its
function in the sentence.  Follow this link to
pronoun case for more information.

 


B.     
Demonstrative Pronouns:

                             

                   






Demonstrative pronouns can also be used as
determiners.

                  

Example:

            

Hand me that hammer. (that
describes the noun hammer)

                           






Demonstrative pronouns can also be used as
qualifiers:

           

Example:

         

She wanted that much money? (that
describes the adjective much)

 

                   

C. Reflexive /
Intensive Pronouns
:  the
“self” pronouns

         

             

These pronouns can be used only to reflect or
intensify a word already there in the sentence.

              

Reflexive / intensive pronouns CANNOT REPLACE
personal pronouns.

                        






Examples:

                

I saw myself 
in the mirror. (Myself is a reflexive pronoun, reflecting the
pronoun I.)

                

I’ll do it myself. (Myself
is an intensive pronoun, intensifying the pronoun I.)

                    

                    

Note: 
The following words are substandard and should not be used:

                          

             theirselves      
theirself         
hisself        
ourself

 

 

                      

                    

D. Indefinite
Pronouns:

                            

Singular:

 




one

someone

anyone

no
one

everyone

each

somebody

anybody

nobody

everybody

(n)either

something

anything

nothing

everything

                  

                     





Examples:

                             

Somebody is coming to dinner.

Neither of us believes a word
Harry says.

Plural:     





Examples:


Both are expected at the
airport at the same time.

Several have suggested
canceling the meeting.

Singular with non-countables / Plural with
countables
:





Examples:


Some of the dirt
has become a permanent part of the rug.

Some of
the trees have been weakened by the storm.

Indefinite pronouns use
apostrophes to indicate
possessive case.





Examples:


The accident is nobody’s fault.

How will the roadwork affect one’s
daily commute?

Some indefinite pronouns may also be used as determiners.

one, each, either, neither, some, any, one, all,
both, few, several, many, most





















Note the differences:


Each person has a chance.


(Each is a determiner describing
person.)



Each has a chance.


(Each is an indefinite pronoun replacing
a noun.)



Both lawyers pled their
cases well.


(Both is a determiner describing 
lawyers.)



Both were in the room.


(Both is an indefinite pronoun replacing
a noun.)

E. Interrogative
Pronouns
:

Interrogative pronouns produce information
questions that require more than a “yes” or “no” answer.






Examples:


What do you want?


Who is there?

F. Relative
Pronouns:

Relative pronouns introduce relative
(adjectival) clauses.

 

 




Note:

Use who, whom, and whose to refer
to people.

Use that and which to refer to
things.

 


View more information: https://webapps.towson.edu/ows/pronouns.htm

See more articles in category: Grammar
READ:  Bridget Sullivan | Towson University

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